Here is a list of public companies with known efforts in Quantum Computing. More information on the activities of these public companies will be added as this web site is built out. Please send any updates to email@example.com.
Formed in 1992 and based in Toronto, Canada, 01 Communique started as a company that provides its customers with a suite of secure remote access services and products. In early 2018 the Company began transitioning its business focusing on cybersecurity with the development and implementation of Post-Quantum Cryptography and Post-Quantum Blockchain technologies. They have developed a patent-pending, quantum resistant software system called IronCap that can safeguard clients data against future attacks from quantum computers
Accenture Labs has formed a research group that is partnering with 1QBit to explore potential use cases for quantum computing by industry. They have recently publicized some work they are doing with 1QBit and Biogen to apply quantum computing to accelerate drug discovery. Accenture Labs and 1QBit have mapped out 150+ promising use cases where applying quantum computing might be used.
Airbus has set up a new research group in Newport, Wales to explore the potential use of quantum computing in aerospace activities. Potential applications could include searching big data, designing air vehicles and systems, designing new materials, and debugging complex software. Airbus has also made an investment in quantum software company QC Ware and will be partnering with them in this effort.
Alibaba Group’s cloud computing subsidiary has partnered with the Chinese Academy of Science to establish the Alibaba Quantum Computing Laboratory in Shanghai, China. The laboratory combines the technical advantages of Alibaba in classical calculation algorithms, structures and cloud computing with those of the Chinese Academy of Science in quantum computing, quantum analog computing and quantum artificial intelligence. It is conducting research in quantum theory with a view towards discovering ground-breaking security techniques for e-commerce and data centers, as well as to enhancing computing performance.
Amazon Web Services (AWS) is creating a new quantum computing cloud service called Amazon Braket that will provide access to quantum computers from D-Wave, IonQ, and Rigetti, with more to be added in the future. It will be a fully managed service that will include Amazon’s own development environment that will interface to these other systems. They are also creating the AWS Center for Quantum Computing at Caltech in Pasadena, California to bring together researchers and engineers from Amazon with leading academic institutions in quantum computing, to develop more powerful quantum computing hardware and identify novel quantum applications. Finally, Amazon is creating a Quantum Solutions Lab that will provide hands-on educational workshops and help their customers develop their own strategy for quantum computing, build internal expertise, and eventually deploy quantum applications.
Archer Materials Limited
Archer Materials Limited, headquartered near Adelaide, Australia is a materials technology company that is developing and integrating materials to address complex global challenges in quantum technology, human health, and reliable energy. In December 2018 they licensed a room temperature, carbon-based spin qubit technology called 12CQ from the University of Sydney and are now proceeding to develop a quantum device based upon this technology.
Arqit supplies a unique quantum encryption Platform-as-a-Service which makes the communications links of any networked device secure against current and future forms of attack – even from a quantum computer. Arqit’s product, QuantumCloud™, enables any device to download a lightweight software agent, which can create encryption keys in partnership with any other device. The keys are computationally secure, optionally one-time use and zero trust. QuantumCloud™ can create limitless volumes of keys in limitless group sizes and can regulate the secure entrance and exit of a device in a group. The company is headquartered in London, England and became a public company as a result of a business combination with a Special Purpose Acquisition Corporation (SPAC) in September 2021.
AT&T (INQNET Alliance)
The AT&T Foundry innovation center has joined forces with Caltech to establish an organization and program of work on Intelligent Quantum Networks and Technologies (INQNET). Two of the INQNET program areas are focused on Quantum Networks and Communications and Quantum Algorithms/Quantum Machine Learning and Quantum AI. The full INQNET program extends to quantum computation co-design, quantum communication protocols and inhomogeneous computation landscapes of the future as well as connections with the quantum fundamental research developments in the areas that include quantum materials, devices and systems, quantum control and error correction. INQNET is located within the AT&T Foundry in Palo Alto, California and also at Caltech in Pasadena, California.
Atos Quantum is a group within the European company Atos that specializes in quantum technology. They have recently released a product called the Atos Quantum Learning Machine which is a classical computer that can simulate a quantum system using anywhere between 30 and 40 qubits, depending upon the specific configuration. Associated with this product, Atos Quantum provides a universal quantum assembly programming language called AQASM along with other software to allow researchers, engineers, and students to develop and experiment with quantum software.
Baidu has launched its own institute for quantum computing dedicated to the application of quantum computing software and information technology. The Baidu Quantum Computing Institute will be headed by Professor Duan Runyao, who had been the director of the Centre for Quantum Software and Information at the University of Technology Sydney (UTS). The company is seeking to apply the potential benefits of quantum technology across its businesses, from online search to artificial intelligence, following similar moves from its rivals Alibaba and Tencent.
Booz Allen Hamilton
Booz Allen has formed a team within their Data Science and Analytics group to utilize quantum computing to provide solutions to their business and government clients. Problem areas of interest including System & Network Optimization, Vehicle Routing, Logistics, Job Scheduling, Drug Discovery, Manufacturing, System Design, and Verification & Validation. They indicate on their web site that they are one of the first companies in the world to use quantum computing to solve real-world problems.
BTQ is a company that builds post-quantum infrastructure to secure mission critical networks with a particular emphasis on providing quantum safe products for blockchain applications. The company is developing several software products that will be usable for distributed ledgers and other applications. They are also designing a hardware chip for accelerating post-quantum computations. The company was founded in March 2021 and went public on the Canadian NEO exchange in February 2023 trading under the symbol BTQ. The company’s headquarters is in Vancouver, Canada with additional locations in Vaduz, Liechtenstein, Taipei, Taiwan, Tokyo, Japan, and Sydney, Australia.
D-Wave was one of the earliest commercial companies formed to pursue quantum computing. There were founded in 1999 in Vancouver, Canada with the goal of making practical quantum computing a reality and have focused on developing a series of adiabatic quantum annealing processors that can be used with quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) problems. D-Wave also provides offers cloud computing services for customers who wish to access this capability remotely. In addition to the hardware, D-Wave also offers a full suite of software development tools and libraries to help their customers accelerate the development of applications for use on the machine. D-Wave is the only company that is working on developing both annealing and gate-based quantum processors. In August 2022, the company became public through a SPAC merger with DPCM Capital and the parent company is now incorporated in the U.S. state of Delaware.
Google Quantum AI Lab
Google has a significant research effort in Quantum Computing. They have been working together with NASA and the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) to operate first a DWave 2 and now a DWave 2X processor at the NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California. Google has recently published a benchmarking paper on the DWave 2X showing initial test results. In 2014, Google started up a second effort by hiring John Martinis and his group at UC Santa Barbara to work on a quantum computer that utilizes some of the surface code error correction technology that they have developed. This technology has already exhibited major improvements in coherence time that could significantly improve a quantum computer’s performance. Google has been vague about the ultimate goal but it is clear there could be significant applications in machine learning, pattern recognition, and other areas relevant to Google’s main endeavors.
IBM research has a quantum computing group at their Yorktown Heights, New York, research center. IBM’s approach appears to be based upon utilization of superconducting circuits coupled with error correction. In April 2015, they announced an advance with a circuit that can detect both bit-flip and phase-flip errors together. Most recently in December 2015, IBM was awarded an iARPA grant to use this technology under the Logical Qubits (LogiQ) program to overcome the limitation of current quantum systems by building a logical qubit from a number of imperfect physical qubits.
IonQ was formed in 2015 to pursue quantum computers using ion trap technology by Professors Chris Monroe and Jungsang Kim from the University of Maryland and Duke University respectively. They recently have gone public on the New York Stock Exchange with ticker symbol IONQ through a merger with a Special Purpose Acquisition Company (SPAC). The company offers access to their computer through partnerships with cloud vendors Amazon Web Services (AWS) Braket, Microsoft Azure, and the Google Cloud as well as directly from IonQ. The company is located in College Park, Maryland and recently announced they will partner with the University of Maryland to create a National Quantum Lab at Maryland (or Q-Lab) that will provide students and researchers access to IonQ’s hardware.
Infineon is involved in several consortia on quantum technologies, each pursuing different approaches. They include a project called GeQCoS developing a superconducting based quantum computer, as well as the PIEDMONS ion trap-based and the QUASAR silicon-based quantum computer projects. Since 2017 Infineon has already been active as a pioneer in post-quantum cryptography, and is contributing to the development and standardization of quantum-safe cryptography methods.
Although Intel previously did not have any research efforts devoted to quantum computing they did just commit to provide QuTech, the quantum research institute of Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) and the Dutch Organisation of Applied Research (TNO), with $50 million in funding and provide engineering support over a ten years collaboration to support their efforts. A press kit describing Intel’s activities in quantum computing can accessed here. Many people have been forecasting that Moore’s Law will end at some point and it seems that Intel wanted to hedge their bets on this new technology.
JSR Corporation is a multinational company employing over 7,000 people worldwide and a leading materials supplier in a variety of technology driven markets. JSR’s global network is headquartered in Tokyo (Japan) and has factories and offices in Japan, Europe, US, China, Taiwan, Korea Singapore and Thailand. In December 2017, JSR became one of IBM’s earliest access clients to its IBM Q Network and in April 2018 they made an initial investment in Cambridge Quantum Computing (CQC) and increased their stake to 5.5% of CQC in July 2018.
Lockheed Martin operates with the University of Southern California, the USC-Lockheed Martin Quantum Computation Center (QCC), which current has a DWave 2 processor that will be upgraded to the DWave 2X in January 2016. Lockheed was DWave’s first customer with the purchase of the DWave One in 2011. One of the unique areas that Lockheed has researched is the usage of quantum computers for verification and validation of complex software such as flight control systems. In 2014, they published a paper on this that you can find here. Lockheed is also a participant in the iARPA QEO (Quantum Enhanced Optimization) for quantum annealing as well as an industry partner in the NSF Enabling Practical Scale Quantum Computing programs.
Microsoft has multiple efforts related to quantum computing. Through their Azure Cloud Computing Service, they offer access to quantum computers from IonQ and Quantinuum (aka Honeywell) and are soon adding Rigetti and Quantum Circuits Inc. They maintain an Azure Quantum Network and collaborate with a number of solution partners, academic institutions, non-profits, and customers to develop quantum and quantum-inspired solutions. Microsoft provides a Quantum Development Kit (QDK) which is a full SDK that includes a quantum specific language called Q# and allows someone to write quantum programs, simulate the programs on a classical computer, and then run the program on the quantum computer attached to Azure. Microsoft also partners with a number of research groups at universities around the world to explore potential use of topological qubits which could potentially provide much lower error rates than other qubit technologies.
Mitsubishi is performing active research on quantum cryptography, Using quantum technology, they have developed the world’s first one-time pad software for mobile phones to ensure that telephone conversations remain confidential. As part of their research, they have been looking into factors which distort the optical signals carried by installed optical fibers and ways to correct for them. Mitsubishi is continuing to run tests and make improvements so that the systems can help create a communications environment that can be used anytime and anywhere.
Mphasis has a quantum computing group that supports clients by leveraging quantum computing to solve business problems in the area of machine learning, optimization and simulation. They provide clients with services including consulting, assessments, workshops, algorithm development and implementation. They have developed a framework called EON that is used for quantum assisted machine learning and support several types of quantum processors including both quantum annealing and gate-based systems, as well as simulators and emulators.
NEC is a Japanese multinational information technology and electronics company, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. They have been researching quantum technology since the late 1990’s and are currently developing a quantum annealing processor with support from Japan’s New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). Their goal is to demonstrate practical applications for an all-to-all connected quantum annealing processor by 2023. They are partnering with ParityQC in the area of quantum architectures and have a multi-faceted partnership with D-Wave to include investment, joint product development, marketing, and sales.
Nokia Bell Labs
Several of the early breakthroughs in quantum computing occurred at Bell Labs including the development of Shor’s factoring algorithm and Grover’s search algorithm. Research is ongoing in conjunction with universities in such areas as quantum error correction codes, fault tolerant thresholds, quantum overheads, topological quantum computing, quantum state preserving frequency converter and other projects.
Northrup Grumman has several quantum research activities underway as part of their basic research teams. Northrup is the lead for the design, fabrication, system integration, and experimental testing portion in the iARPA QEO (Quantum Enhanced Optimization) program for quantum annealing. They are also an industry partner in the NSF Enabling Practical Scale Quantum Computing programs.
NTT Research and Basic Research Laboratories
In 2019, NTT Research was set up in Palo Alto, California. The company consists of three Labs – Physics & Informatics (PHI) Lab, Cryptography & Information Security (CIS) Lab and Medical & Health Informatics (MEI) Lab. The PHI Lab was founded to research problems in the areas of mathematics & algorithms, quantum simulation, quantum neural networks, and photonic accelerator hardware. NTT Research has set up research partnerships with California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Cornell University, University of Michigan, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), MIT Lincoln Laboratory, NASA Ames Research Center, Riken, Stanford University, Swinburne University of Technology, and quantum computing software company 1QBit to look at various aspects of quantum technology. One significant area of research for the PHI Lab is to develop Coherent Ising Machines (CIM) using optical parametric oscillators (OPO). This technology has a potential to provide good solutions to complex optimization problems and could be an alternative to quantum annealing as well as gate-based quantum computers for these types of problems.
NTT also has small groups investigating quantum physics and quantum information processing in their Basic Research Laboratories in Kanagawa, Japan. These groups explores how quantum phenomena can be applied to generate new forms of quantum technology. More specifically, they investigate a) foundational aspects of quantum theory including nonlocal phenomena; b) quantum key distribution and its security; c) techniques for quantum communication, repeaters and computation; e) hybrid quantum systems (composite systems taking the best parts of each).
Quantum Computing Inc.
Quantum Computing Inc. (QCi), a public company (NASDAQ: QUBT) headquartered in Leesburg, Virginia. They are a quantum hardware and software company on a mission to accelerate the value of quantum computing for real-world business solutions. The company provides accessible and affordable solutions with real-world industrial applications, using nanophotonic-based quantum entropy that can be used anywhere and with little to no training, operates at normal room temperatures, low power and is not burdened with unique environmental requirements. QCi’s core nanophotonic-based technology is applicable to both quantum computing as well as quantum sensing and imaging solutions. QCi’s core entropy computing capability, the Dirac series, delivers solutions for both binary and integer-based optimization problems using over 11,000 qubits for binary problems and over 1000 (n=64) qubits for integer-based problems, each of which are the highest number of variables and problem size available in quantum computing today. Using the Company’s core quantum methodologies, the company has developed specific quantum applications for AI, cybersecurity and remote sensing, including its Reservoir Photonic Computer series, reprogrammable and non-repeatable Quantum Random Number Generator and LiDAR products.
Located in Brassard, Canada, Quantum eMotion (TSX-V: QNC; OTCMKTS: QNCCF; F: 34Q) is an advanced developer of a new generation of cryptographic solutions based on Quantum Random Number Generator (QRNG). They work with microprocessors vendors and OEM to develop and market secure and affordable encrypted communication solutions for the financial/banking, military, mobile and internet telecommunication sectors. Their technology is based on many years of extensive research by the Physics Department of Sherbrooke University, Canada. The company was previously known as Quantum Numbers Corporation but changed its name in May 2021.
Quemix, a wholly owned subsidiary of TerraSky Corporation
Quemix was established in Tokyo, Japan in June 2019 to work with customers and help them by providing services, algorithms, and tools that will create an easy-to-use environment for quantum applications. They have opened the “Quantum Computing Lab” to work with companies interested in quantum computers. They also provide services such as (1) an educational program that allows customers to learn efficiently, (2) support for finding issues in their company, and (3) verification using quantum computing resources such as IBM Q.
Raytheon BBN Technologies is a research and development center part of the Raytheon Company located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. They have established a quantum information processing group that focuses on exploiting quantum phenomena for sensing, computing and imaging.
Reply is a European company that provides consulting, system integration and digital services with yearly revenues that exceed 1.1 billion euros and an employee count of more than 8,000. They have created a competence center dedicated to quantum computing to investigate the application of different quantum algorithms to customers’ areas of interest. Some applications are already integrated into innovative projects. Reply has developed quantum solutions in various areas: from the transport sector, with the optimization of train and travel management, to telecommunications, with a solution capable of minimizing interference along the entire network, and to the energy sector, optimizing the planning of maintenance work, up to finance with the implementation of an optimal model for managing the costs of operating movements on the financial markets. In 2020, Reply won the worldwide Airbus quantum computing challenge with a quantum algorithm that finds the optimal loading for a plane to maximize the transported mass.
Rigetti is a full-stack quantum processor provider using a superconducting qubit technology. They provide access to their machines through their Quantum Cloud Services (QCS) platform as well as through the Amazon Braket and Microsoft Azure cloud services. The company’s headquarters are in Berkeley, California and they also operate a dedicated quantum wafer fabrication facility in Fremont, California. The company was founded in 2013 and went public through a business combination with Supernova Partners Acquisition Company II, Ltd. in March 2022.
Toshiba – Cambridge Research Laboratory
Toshiba has established a Quantum Information Group at their Cambridge, UK laboratory. This group has been focusing on quantum cryptography and has developed a quantum key distribution system.