By Amina Bashir and Doug Finke

One of the key applications of quantum technology is to create a quantum network that can communicate messages and quantum states in a way that gives them more protection and other properties due to the laws of physics. Although this research is still very early, a number of organizations have started to create quantum testbeds to try out these quantum networks in order to continue developing them and advancing the technology. Most of these testbeds are used for Quantum Key Distribution, which one might argue as the simplest application for a quantum network. However, later on there can be a range of new applications including quantum sensor networks, distributed quantum computing, and blind quantum computing that are more complex, and can bring completely new capabilities.

To get a handle on the testing that is going on, we curated a list of all public mentions of quantum network testbed activity going on worldwide to show the scope of the activity and where it is happening. We should say that this research is very dynamic, and our listing is only a snapshot of a moment in time, so there may be some changes after we publish this. We welcome any comments or updates from people involved with these projects.

The table below shows a listing of 44 testbeds that we found along with a link to a description of them available on the internet along with the country they are located in and our best determination of the status. Notably, some of these testbeds may have been created only for temporary use and may have already been retired. Some of them may have been announced and are under construction. In the table below, we have noted both these cases if we are aware of it.

For more details about quantum networking in general, you can obtain a report written by Global Quantum Intelligence titled Quantum Safe Outlook that provides additional technical details on quantum networking as well as the software based Post Quantum Cryptography (PQC), which is another approach to providing encryption that is safe from quantum computer based attacks.

Table of Known Quantum Networking Testbeds

Network NameCountryStatus
Brookhaven National Laboratory Quantum Network Facility & The Long Island Quantum Information Distribution Network (LiQuiDNET) TestbedUS – New YorkDevelopment
GothamQUS – New YorkDevelopment
Chicago Quantum Exchange (CQE) + ToshibaUS – IllinoisActive
The Washington Metropolitan Quantum Network Research Consortium or DC-QnetUS – Washington DCDevelopment
EPB Quantum NetworkUS – TennesseeActive
Public Quantum NetworkUS – IllinoisActive
Advanced Quantum Networks for Scientific Discovery (AQNET-SD) projectUS – Illinois, CaliforniaAnnounced
Illinois‐Express Quantum Network (IEQNET) & FQNETUS – IllinoisActive
Quantum Networks to Connect Quantum Technology (QuaNeCQT) Project & MARQI ExpansionUS – MarylandActive
DARPA QNUS – MassachusettsRetired
Distributed Quantum Network by QUANT-NETUS – CaliforniaActive
Hybrid Quantum Architectures and Networks (HQAN) NetworksUS – IllinoisActive
Quantum Encryption and Science Satellite (QEYSSat)Canada, UKDevelopment
Quebec Quantum Communication TestbedCanada – QuebecAnnounced
Luxembourg Quantum Communication Infrastructure Laboratory (LUQCIA)LuxembourgDevelopment
QuTech, Eurofiber and Juniper Networks Netherlands NetworkNetherlandsActive
SEcure COmmunication Project – The SECOQC quantum key distribution networkAustriaActive
SwissQuantum quantum key distribution networkSwitzerlandRetired
EuroQCI initiative: Inter-European Quantum NetworkItaly, Slovenia, CroatiaActive
Quantum Internet AllianceEuropeActive
OpenQKD ProjectEuropeActive
Cambridge quantum network/ Metro NetworkUKActive
Bristol Quantum NetworkUKActive
The UK Quantum Network between Cambridge and Bristol (UKQN)UKActive
UKQN Extension (UKQNTel) Between Cambridge and BT labsUKActive
Quantum-Secured Network Across LondonUKActive
Twin Field QKD SystemUKActive
Mission 2 of the National Quantum StrategyUKAnnounced
Tokyo QKD NetworkJapanActive
Singapore’s National Quantum-Safe Network (NQSN)SingaporeActive
AWS TestbedSingaporeActive
National Quantum-Safe Network Plus (NQSN+)SingaporeAnnounced
QuantumCity network in South AfricaSouth AfricaActive
Interuniversity Quantum Network in MoscowRussiaActive
Quantum Computing-based Telecom Network Link in New DelhiIndiaActive
Zhucheng- Huanshang QKD LinkChinaActive
Quantum Network by University of Science and Technology of ChinaChinaActive
Hefei metro networkChinaActive
HCW Intercity LinkChinaActive
Wuhu Metro NetworkChinaActive
Post-Quantum Cryptography on SK TelecomKoreaAnnounced
Nation-wide QKD NetworkKoreaActive
Rockabill Subsea NetworkIreland, UKExperimental

Amina Bashir is a cybersecurity expert with a Bachelor’s in Computer Science. With 8+ years of experience, she has taught at Hunter College, contributed to product and intel teams in leading cybersecurity firms, and is published in prestigious journals like Elsevier’s International Journal of Future Generation Computer Systems and IEEE. Her expertise blends academia and practical industry experience seamlessly.

Doug Finke is Chief Content Officer for Global Quantum Intelligence (GQI) and Managing Editor of the Quantum Computing Report.

March 19, 2024